CRC806-Database Data Feed (Atom) Foragers and Farmers during the Neolithic Transition in Western Central Europe: Searching for Evidence of Mobility and Intercultural Networks 2017-08-16T07:19:57+02:00 Introduction This paper discusses the interaction between foragers and farmers during the various phases of the neolithisation processes in south-western and north-western central europe. The disparate state of research on Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherer groups and early Neolithic farmers in terms of the certainty of the detailed chronology, the number of sites and the comprehensiveness of the find and feature analyses, does not permit a discussion on the basis of equally-weighted data. Nevertheless, examples can be found to illustrate and evaluate such interaction with regard to the questions raised in this volume on “Mobility in prehistoric sedentary societies”. important for the following discussions are the distribution maps (Figs. 2–4) and the sites of special interest (Fig. 1; list of sites in Appendix, p. 73). Birgit Gehlen Black carbon accrual during 2000 years of paddy-rice and non-paddy cropping in the Yangtze River Delta, China. 2017-07-25T09:22:35+02:00 Rice straw burning has accompanied paddy management for millennia, introducing black carbon (BC) into soil as the residue of incomplete combustion. This study examined the contribution of BC to soil organic matter and the rate at which it accumulates in paddy soils as a result of prolonged paddy management. Soil depth profiles were sampled along a chronosequence of 0-2000 years of rice-wheat rotation systems and adjacent non-paddy systems (50-700 years) in the Bay of Hangzhou (Zhejiang province, China). The soil BC content and its degree of condensation were assessed using benzene-polycarboxylic acids (BPCAs) as geochemical markers. The results showed that despite regular long term BC input, BC only contributed 7-11% of total soil organic carbon (SOC) in the topsoil horizons. Nevertheless, along with SOC, paddy soils accumulated BC with increasing duration of management until 297 years to reach a steady-state of 13 t BC ha(-1). This was 1.8 times more than in non-paddy soils. The fate of BC in paddy soils (0-1 m) could be modeled revealing an average annual input of 44 kg ha(-1) yr(-1), and a mean residence time of 303 years. The subsoils contributed at least 50% to overall BC stocks, which likely derived from periods prior to land embankment and episodic burial of ancient topsoil, as also indicated by BPCA pattern changes. We conclude that there is a significant but limited accumulation of C in charred forms upon prolonged paddy management. The final contribution of BC to total SOC in paddy soils was similar to that in other aerobic ecosystems of the world. Arne Kappenberg Lateglacial to Holocene pedogenesis and formation of colluvial deposits in a loess landscape of Central Europe (Wetterau, Germany) 2017-07-25T09:18:46+02:00 Loess areas in Central Europe have been settled since ancient times and are therefore predestined to archive information about both the paleoenvironment with and without human activities. In gentle rolling loess-landscapes distinct short and shallow valleys, so-called dells, are prominent landscape elements that act as sediment traps. The loess-paleosol-colluvium (LPC) sequence of Gambach (Wetterau, Germany) can be regarded as an exceptional sequence for Lateglacial-Holocene pedogenesis and human impact in dry loess landscapes with < 600 mm mean annual precipitation in Central Europe. The focus of this study is to reconstruct different stages of Lateglacial/Holocene pedogenesis and to trace back the impact of humans on such a landscape by an integration of AMS14C and luminescence datings together with soil chemical (organic C, N, and fire derived black C), soil physical and micromorphological analyses. The LPC sequence of Gambach reflects climate-controlled pedogenesis from ca. 15 ka to 4.7 ka with the formation of a Cambisol having some properties related to Chernozem soil forming processes during the Lateglacial. A Chernozem is developed in the deposits of the Laacher See Tephra, which still show the influence of periglacial climate in their lowermost part. The upper part of these deposits was relocated by colluvial processes at around 6.7 ka. Chernozem soil forming processes were still ongoing until 4.7 ka when these shifted to Luvisol formation, which is still active today. Since 4.7 ka, extended land use - with indications of agricultural fire use since at least 2.3 ka - led to the formation of colluvial deposits combined with a topographic leveling of upland positions on a landscape-scale. The results of the formative element of humans on loess landscapes from the Wetterau can also be taken as representative for around 9400 km2 of dry loess landscapes in Central Europe. Arne Kappenberg Biomarkers in modern and buried soils of semi-desert and forest ecosystems of northern Iran 2017-07-25T09:15:23+02:00 In Northern Iran mean annual precipitation and vegetation vary significantly over short distance from a semi-desert to a forest biome. These ecosystems likely responded differently on past climate changes. We here aim at i) testing the applicability of biomarkers (leave-derived n-alkanes, their stable carbon isotope composition, and C and N stable isotopes of soil organic matter) in loess-derived soils to identify and differentiate past ecosystems, and ii) elucidating the variability of these biomarkers in palaeosols. We sampled modern topsoils and palaeosol horizons within an ecological gradient covering a range in mean annual precipitation from 200 to 750 mm from the Kopet Dag semi-desert to the Hyrcanian forest on the footslopes of the Alborz Mountains. Corg, N, δ13Corg, δ15N, and n-alkanes (and their compound-specific δ13C) were analyzed to characterize organic matter composition and sources. In modern soils a systematic increase in Corg and N was observed with precipitation. The δ15N decreased from about 6 to 4‰ pointing to systematically more degraded organic matter in semi-desert soils. The leave-wax specific ratio of (nC31 + nC33)/(nC27 + nC29)-n-alkanes was >1 for semi-desert soils and <1 for the forest ecosystem. The δ13Corg showed no systematic trend in this gradient. In loess and palaeosol profiles, contents of Corg, N and n-alkanes dropped about a factor 10 compared to modern soils. The n-alkane ratio and δ15N ratios remained on comparable levels as did the compound-specific δ13C in n-alkanes. However, bulk δ13Corg was altered from about −27 in modern soil to −23‰ in loess-palaeosols. Systematically higher Corg and N values were observed in palaeo-topsoils compared to loess and subsoil. Stable C isotopes varied rather unsystematically within loess-palaeosol sequences, while δ15N revealed trends within palaeosols, however, in contrasting directions with palaesol depth. The (temporal) average n-alkane ratio for all palaeosol horizons of one site systematically followed the modern precipitation gradient indicating that in all periods of soil formation a climatic gradient developed. Arne Kappenberg Biomarkers in archaeology – Land use around the Uyghur capital Karabalgasun, Orkhon Valley, Mongolia 2017-07-25T08:58:13+02:00 In order to investigate the use to which recently discovered and recorded large oval enclosures surrounded by a low wall and ditch were put, a series of topsoil samples were taken and subjected to an analysis of specific lipids; such soil chemical evidence from human and domesticated animal faeces can provide significant insights into the land use history of the areas sampled. The enclosures are likely to have been used for horticulture, and certainly not for keeping livestock. Human settlement, as attested by the presence of roof tiles and ceramic sherds, was in square, enclosed compounds nearby, and these were clearly smaller. Oval complexes have so far only been documented in Mongolia in the vicinity of the Uyghur capital of Karabalgasun. Karabalgasun was evidently much greater in extent than had hitherto been assumed and it was divided into a number of functional areas. Initial results from our targeted samples show that the analysis of lipids has much potential, offering new opportunities to elucidate land use, e.g. the cultivation of cereals and vegetables in contrast to livestock keeping. It is precisely this aspect, so far largely neglected by research, which will allow us to assess the oft-claimed ‘dependence’ of the nomads on agricultural communities. Arne Kappenberg