Found 44 datasets

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Boni Island - Holozäne Landschaftsdynamik und Mensch-Umwelt-Beziehung am Vierten Nil-Katarakt (Nord-Sudan) Spatial

Der Vierte Nil-Katarakt im Nord-Sudan ist im Jahr 2008 im Hamdab-Stausee untergegangen. Geowissenschaftlich und archäologisch bislang kaum erforscht, stellte er eine einzigartige landschaftliche Versuchsanordnung dar. Am Beispiel der Insel Boni, die für die vorliegende Studie vor der Flutung im Rahmen des Sonderforschungsbereichs 389 untersucht wurde, wird gezeigt, dass die tektonisch angelegte Kleinkammerung des Reliefs und die nachfolgende, periodisch und saisonal stark wechselnde fluviale und äolische...
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Varved sediments of Lake Yoa (Ounianga Kebir, Chad) reveal progressive drying of the Sahara during the last 6100 years doi Spatial

The sedimentological and geochemical properties of a 7.47 m long laminated sequence from hypersaline Lake Yoa in northern Chad have been investigated, representing a unique, continuous 6100 year long continental record of climate and environmental change in the eastern Central Sahara. These data were used to reconstruct the Mid to Late Holocene history of this currently hyper-arid region, in order to address the question of whether the Mid Holocene environmental transition from a humid to a dry Sahara was...
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Modern and early Holocene mollusc fauna of the Ounianga lakes (northern Chad): implications for the palaeohydrology of the central Sahara doi Spatial

The fresh and saline lakes of Ounianga Kebir and Serir in northeastern Chad are among the very few permanent aquatic ecosystems currently existing in the hyper-arid core of the Sahara desert. The confirmed modern fauna of aquatic molluscs at Ounianga comprises three widespread species (Melanoides tuberculata, Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Lymnaea natalensis), of which only the first appears to maintain a thriving population. We recovered seven more species of gastropods, among which one is new to science...
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Climate-Driven Ecosystem Succession in the Sahara: The Past 6000 Years doi Spatial

Desiccation of the Sahara since the middle Holocene has eradicated all but a few natural archives recording its transition from a “green Sahara” to the present hyperarid desert. Our continuous 6000-year paleoenvironmental reconstruction from northern Chad shows progressive drying of the regional terrestrial ecosystem in response to weakening insolation forcing of the African monsoon and abrupt hydrological change in the local aquatic ecosystem controlled by site-specific thresholds. Strong reductions...
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Climatic change recorded in the sediments of the Chew Bahir basin, southern Ethiopia, during the last 45,000 years Spatial

East African paleoenvironments are highly variable, marked by extreme fluctuations in moisture availability, which has far-reaching implications for the origin, evolution and dispersal of Homo sapiens in and beyond the region. This paper presents results from a pilot core from the Chew Bahir basin in southern Ethiopia that records the climatic history of the past 45 ka, with emphasis on the African Humid Period (AHP, w15e5 ka calBP). Geochemical, physical and biological indicators show that Chew Bahir...
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Top down: New satellite data and ground-truth data as base for a reconstruction of ancient caravan routes. Examples from the Western Desert of Egypt Spatial

Thanks to new satellite data, it is possible to examine deserts area-wide for linear structures. Additionally, digital elevation models can be use to evaluate the geomorphological situation. In conjunction with historical sources and ground-truth data, these data allow us, for the first time, to reconstruct the position of the caravan routes with reasonable accuracy, here exemplified for the extremely arid Western Desert of Egypt. On the central Egyyptian Limestone Plateau where stony ground (hamada, serir)...
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Perched groundwater at the northwestern coast of Egypt: a case study of the Fuka Basin doi Spatial

Perched groundwater resources on the northwestern coast of Egypt have thus far been little studied. However, if replenished by rainwater, they can provide a considerable amount of renewable water, i.e., for sustainable irrigation. These resources are limited, show different salinity contents and are endangered by overuse, pollution and by the sea level rising in the context of global warming. This paper presents new climatic data, geomorphologic, geologic, geochemical and hydrological researches in...
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Kultur- und Landschaftswandel im ariden Afrika (Exkurs O. Bubenzer: Wüstenränder - sensitive ökologische, ökonomische und soziale Räume) Spatial

In vielen Trockengebieten der Erde haben der Klimawandel, ein überdurchschnittlich hoher Bevölkerungsdruck und eine zunehmende Ressourcen-, Nahrungsmittel- und Energienachfrage zu Landnutzungsänderungen, Migration, Ausweitung von Bewässerungsflächen oder zunehmender Verstädterung und damit einhergehenden Prozessen der Bodendegradation oder gar Desertifikation sowie zu physischem oder ökonomischem Wassermangel geführt. Während in prähistorischer Zeit das menschliche Handeln von den naturräumlichen...
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Ages for the Middle Stone Age of Southern Africa: Implications for Human Behavior and Dispersal Spatial

The expansion of modern human populations in Africa 80,000 to 60,000 years ago and their initial exodus out of Africa have been tentatively linked to two phases of technological and behavioral innovation within the Middle Stone Age of southern Africa—the Still Bay and Howieson’s Poort industries—that are associated with early evidence for symbols and personal ornaments. Establishing the correct sequence of events, however, has been hampered by inadequate chronologies. We report ages for nine sites from...
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Towards a Reconstruction of Land Use Potential - Case Studies from the Western Desert of Egypt doi Spatial

This chapter is situated in the field among archaeology, geomorphology, and ecology. Two case studies from different east-Saharan landscape units classify and analyse archaeological, geoscientific, and remote-sensing data of Early and Mid-Holocene archaeological sites. The section combines the approaches of landscape ecology and landscape archaeology. The aim is a parameterisation of the research areas with respect to structural and ecological features. The data were used within a Geographical...
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Early MIS 3 occupation of Mochena Borago Rockshelter, Southwest Ethiopian Highlands: Implications for Late Pleistocene archaeology, paleoenvironments and modern human dispersals doi Spatial

Between 70 and 50 ka BP, anatomically modern humans dispersed across and out of Africa to eventually populate all inhabitable continents. Knowledge of paleoenvironments and human behavioral patterns in Africa prior to and during these dispersals is crucial for understanding how and why hunter-gatherers were able to adapt rapidly to the new environments they encountered. However, few well-dated sites from this time period are known from the Horn of Africa, one of the purported staging areas for population...
Keywords: LRQ1 LRQ13 LRQ17 LRQ2
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Jungpleistozäne Küstenveränderungen am Roten Meer und die Ausbreitung des Modernen Menschen (B.Sc. thesis University of Cologne) Spatial

This Bachelor of Science thesis will show the changes of the coastal area of the Red Sea at the time of the Upper Pleistocene and their effects on the dispersal of anatomically modern humans (AMH). Thus insights about possible routes of migration of AMH out of Africa shall be gained. For this research the palaeoclimate, the sea level changes and the tectonic processes will be decribed. By reconstruction of coastal areas it will be shown that a trespassing of the Bab al-Mandab strait at the mouth of the Red...
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