Found 41 datasets

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When the Desert Dried Up: Late Prehistoric Cultures and Contacts in Egypt and Northern Sudan

The western hinterland of Lower Nubia and Upper Egypt is desert, an area of extreme character, with little rainfall and sparse vegetation, nearly unpeopled and seemingly endless in its extension. Looking closer at that vast region, one recognizes that the desert is not that barren and simple but offers a diversified landscape and an enormous amount of archaeological traces of past human existence. Interest in prehistoric archaeology of the desert developed very slowly in Egypt and Sudan. Most of our...
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The role of cryptotephra in refining the chronology of Late Pleistocene human evolution and cultural change in North Africa doi

Sites in North Africa hold key information for dating the presence ofHomo sapiens and the distribution of Middle Stone Age (MSA), Middle Palaeolithic (MP) and Later Stone Age (LSA) cultural activity in the Late Pleistocene. Here we present new and review recently published tephrochronological evidence for five cave sites in North Africa with long MSA/MP and LSA cultural sequences. Four tephra horizons have been identified at the Haua Fteah (Cyrenaica, Libya). They include cryptotephra evidence for the...
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“Out of Africa” – Ausgrabungen in der ägyptischen Ostwüste (SFB 806: „Out of Africa“ – Excavations in the Egyptian Eastern Desert)

Die Ausbreitung des Menschen während der letzten 100.000 Jahre von Afrika nach Eurasien gilt heute als gesichert. Wissenschaftler diskutieren jedoch nach wie vor die verschiedenen möglichen Wege, die er dabei genommen haben könnte.
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Report on the third field season of the joint research project "Sodmein Cave" (Eastern Desert, Egypt) in spring 2012

The third field season of the joint research project “Sodmein Cave”, conducted by the German University of Cologne and the Belgian University of Leuven, took place in spring 2012 between the 10th of March and the 15th of April. The field work was carried out under the aegis of the Collaborative Research Centre 806, which was established in 2009 by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Research Funding Organisation). During the first field campaign in 2010 the archaeological excavations in Sodmein Cave could...
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Report on the field season autumn 2010 in Sodmein Cave (Eastern Desert, Egypt)

Although Sodmein Cave was discovered about 30 years ago by M. Prickett (Prickett 1979), systematic research started during the 1990’s by the Belgian Middle Egypt Prehistoric Project (BMEPP) of the Leuven University (e.g. Moeyersons et al. 2002, Vermeersch 1994, Van Peer et al. 1996). With this archaeological field season in 2010 the research in Sodmein Cave was resumed as a joint project of the universities Leuven and Cologne. After the resolution of some administrative problems with regard to the military...
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Investigation of the Azraq Basin, Jordan using Integrated Geoelectrical Techniques: 2D Modeling of Transient Electromagnetic Data

The Eastern Mediterranean has been the passageway for human migration from Africa to the Middle East, the Balkans and Europe. The Azraq basin in the eastern desert of Jordan has been a major spot for human settlements since the middle Pleistocene. The former lake in the basin center has developed to a 10 km × 10 km large hyper-saline alluvial mudflat, the Qa’ Al Azraq. In the basin center thick sequences of alluvial sediments, consisting mostly of clay and various evaporates, are deposited. We utilized the...
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A semantic wiki as repository to review published palaeo-data in East Africa SFB806 doi Spatial

Our research interests in palaeo-studies in East Africa remain high, partly because of the Out-of-Africa hypotheses predicting Homo sapiens origin to be situated in East Africa. Since several decades archaeologists and geoscientists explore suitable sites to answer related questions. Simultaneously, analytical methods applied to the archives improved in their sensibility or resolution over the given time. The amount of published scientific data is enormous, but has to be carefully checked on their...
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Aquatic community response in a groundwater-fed desert lake to Holocene desiccation of the Sahara doi Spatial

The finely laminated sediment record of a permanent, hypersaline, desert oasis lake in the Ounianga region of northeastern Chad presents a unique opportunity to document the hydrological evolution of this groundwater-fed aquatic ecosystem during mid- and late-Holocene desiccation of the Sahara. In this study we reconstruct long-term changes in zoobenthos and zooplankton communities of Lake Yoa as their early-Holocene freshwater habitat changed into the hypersaline conditions prevailing today. Chironomid...
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Response to Comment by Brovkin and Claussen on “Climate-Driven Ecosystem Succession in the Sahara: The Past 6000 Years” doi

The Lake Yoa record and archaeological data provide adequate evidence that mid-Holocene aridification did not occur abruptly across all of North Africa. Modeling results on the issue of abrupt versus gradual desiccation of the Sahara are sufficiently diverse that paleoecological data from a continuous natural archive can usefully guide the evaluation of model parameters responsible for this diversity.
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Sedimentation changes in a complete Holocene lacustrine record in the Sahara: Varve thickness, seasonality and event layers – Problems of identification, interpretation and chronology. Spatial

Lake Yoa (19.03°N, 20.31°E, 380 m a.s.l.) is a groundwater-fed lake in the hyperarid eastern Sahara halfway between the Tibesti Mountains and the Ennedi plateau. Kröpelin et al. (2008) revealed that the bottom sediments contain a unique archive of climatic and environmental change in the Earth´s major desert. The 7.5 m sediment record of OUNIK03/04 which covers 6,100 years has been extended to a maximum drill depth of 15.7 m during a 2010 coring campaign within the framework of the Collaborative...
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Seen in der Sahara doi

Große Wasserflächen inmitten der Wüste sind nicht nur ein Naturspektakel, sondern auch ein hochpräzises Umweltarchiv. Die aus ihnen gewonnenen Sedimente dokumentieren die Klimaentwicklung und geben Aufschluss über Staubstürme, Savannenbrände und Vulkanausbrüche. Eine Reise in den Nordosten des Tschad. Von Stefan Kröpelin
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Lakes in the Sahara doi

Large bodies of water in the middle of the desert are not only a natural spectacle, they also contain extremely precise environmental archives. Sediments extracted from these lakes document climate evolution and provide information on dust storms, savannah fires and volcanic eruptions. A journey to north-east Chad By Stefan Kröpelin
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