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Found 211 datasets

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CLOSE-RANGE SENSING FOR GENERATING 3D OBJECTS IN PREHISTORIC ARCHAEOLOGY

Prehistoric archaeology is an object-oriented discipline. Archaeological objects like stone tools, bone tools or pieces of mobile art embed human behaviour. A central task of prehistoric research is to decode this information in order to reconstruct ancient human behaviour. This premise affords a defined set of tools for analysis and documentation to describe and evaluate particularly the shape of the object and its surface modifications manufactured by humans. Basis for all types of analysis is therefore a...
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Gradual aridification of the Sahara during the last 11,000 years revealed by plant wax δD analyses of Lake Yoa (Chad) Spatial

It is still an ongoing debate whether the transition of the last ‘green Sahara’ period to today’s large desert during the Holocene, the African Humid Period (AHP), was a progressive or an abrupt change in hydrological conditions. Several climate records mainly from East Africa suggest a rapid decline of moisture availability at the end of the AHP including new data from a marine sequence off the Horn of Africa (Tierney & deMenocal, 2013). Other archives including sedimentological,...
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Köppen-Geiger classifications of paleoclimate model simulations (Presentation)

The development and application of an algorithm to compute the Köppen-Geiger climate classification for CMIP/PMIP climate model data is described in this persentation. The classification algorithm is applied to data from the PMIP III paleoclimate experiments for the Last Glacial Maximum (21k yBP), Mid-Holocene (6k yBP) and the Pre-Industrial (0k yBP, control run) time slices. The input data was interpolated to infer higher resolution classification maps. The classification was implemented using Open Source...
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Varved sediments of Lake Yoa (Ounianga Kebir, Chad) reveal progressive drying of the Sahara during the last 6100 years doi Spatial

The sedimentological and geochemical properties of a 7.47 m long laminated sequence from hypersaline Lake Yoa in northern Chad have been investigated, representing a unique, continuous 6100 year long continental record of climate and environmental change in the eastern Central Sahara. These data were used to reconstruct the Mid to Late Holocene history of this currently hyper-arid region, in order to address the question of whether the Mid Holocene environmental transition from a humid to a dry Sahara was...
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Modern and early Holocene mollusc fauna of the Ounianga lakes (northern Chad): implications for the palaeohydrology of the central Sahara doi Spatial

The fresh and saline lakes of Ounianga Kebir and Serir in northeastern Chad are among the very few permanent aquatic ecosystems currently existing in the hyper-arid core of the Sahara desert. The confirmed modern fauna of aquatic molluscs at Ounianga comprises three widespread species (Melanoides tuberculata, Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Lymnaea natalensis), of which only the first appears to maintain a thriving population. We recovered seven more species of gastropods, among which one is new to science...
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Climate-Driven Ecosystem Succession in the Sahara: The Past 6000 Years doi Spatial

Desiccation of the Sahara since the middle Holocene has eradicated all but a few natural archives recording its transition from a “green Sahara” to the present hyperarid desert. Our continuous 6000-year paleoenvironmental reconstruction from northern Chad shows progressive drying of the regional terrestrial ecosystem in response to weakening insolation forcing of the African monsoon and abrupt hydrological change in the local aquatic ecosystem controlled by site-specific thresholds. Strong reductions...
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Les techno-complexes Ibéromaurusiens d’Ifri El Baroud (Rif Oriental, Maroc)

This report summarizes the results of excavations conducted by the Institut National des Sciences de l’Archéologie et du Patrimoine and the German Archaeological Institute at Ifri el-Baroud (Gunpowder Cave). The cultural deposits of Ifri el-Baroud showed to be of a depth of up to 3 meters and to have formed between the 19th and 8th century BC, as proved by a series of radiocarbon datings. The upper part of the stratigraphy consists of an “escargotière” from terrestrian snails, the lower part is formed by a...
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The Epipalaeolithic–Neolithic transition in the Eastern Rif Mountains and the Lower Moulouya valley, Morocco Spatial

The Neolithic transition, since decades in a particular focus of the Western Mediterranean archaeological research, recently receives new input concerning the chronological frame (Carvalho 2010), the development of regional groups (Manen et al. 2010) or raw material supply (Binder et al. 2010). One of the most interesting topics about this is the variability of the archaeological record in the Southern Iberian Peninsula. This seems to be closely linked to the complexity of the environment and the...
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Temporal and spatial corridors of Homo sapiens sapiens population dynamics during the Late Pleistocene and early Holocene doi

“Our Way to Europe – Culture-Environment Interaction and Human Mobility in the Late Quaternary” is a research initiative that is funded since July 2009 by the German Research Foundation (DFG) as a Collaborative Research Centre (CRC). The CRC 806 is based at the University of Cologne, University of Bonn and the RWTH Aachen University. The present special issue of Quaternary International compiles 17 contributions defining the starting points and describing first results of the CRC 806. All contributions...
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Looking around Peştera Cu Oase: The beginnings of Upper Paleolithic in Romania Spatial

In contrast to the widely acknowledged anthropological finds in Oase Cave and to the key geographical position of Romanian territory for the assumed dispersion of Anatomically Modern Humans in Europe, the archaeological information regarding the emergence of the Upper Paleolithic in Romania remains poorly known to a broader scientific community. The prolonged theoretical and methodological isolation of the Romanian Paleolithic research has particularly contributed to keeping the regional archaeology out...
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Climatic change recorded in the sediments of the Chew Bahir basin, southern Ethiopia, during the last 45,000 years Spatial

East African paleoenvironments are highly variable, marked by extreme fluctuations in moisture availability, which has far-reaching implications for the origin, evolution and dispersal of Homo sapiens in and beyond the region. This paper presents results from a pilot core from the Chew Bahir basin in southern Ethiopia that records the climatic history of the past 45 ka, with emphasis on the African Humid Period (AHP, w15e5 ka calBP). Geochemical, physical and biological indicators show that Chew Bahir...
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Top down: New satellite data and ground-truth data as base for a reconstruction of ancient caravan routes. Examples from the Western Desert of Egypt Spatial

Thanks to new satellite data, it is possible to examine deserts area-wide for linear structures. Additionally, digital elevation models can be use to evaluate the geomorphological situation. In conjunction with historical sources and ground-truth data, these data allow us, for the first time, to reconstruct the position of the caravan routes with reasonable accuracy, here exemplified for the extremely arid Western Desert of Egypt. On the central Egyyptian Limestone Plateau where stony ground (hamada, serir)...
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