Data


The Campanian Ignimbrite tephra layer: How far north does it reach?

Abstract

The Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) super-eruption of the Phlegrean Fields (Italy) was the most explosive volcanic event in the Mediterranean area during theLate Pleistocene, concerning both the eruption magnitude and volume of volcanic ejecta. The eruption is dated to 39-40 ka and coincides with the onset of Heinrich Event 4 (HE4), an extremely cold and dry climatic phase. The CI tephra was widely distributed from its source vent in southern Italy throughout western Eurasia as far east as the Russian plain (2200 km distance to source) and southwards to the north African coast. Therefore, a positive feedback mechanism affecting not only European but global climatic dynamics is very likely.Besides the potential to evaluate the role of volcanism on climate forcing, the CI event may provide key information to understand evolutionary processes of the Early Upper Palaeolithic since its timing coincides with the arrival of anatomically modern humans (AMH) into Europe. Furthermore, the CI tephra serves as a powerful chronostratigraphic marker horizon to synchronize records of natural archives during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3.The present case study focusses on a high-resolution MIS 3 multi-proxy record from the Titel Plateau (Vojvodina, Serbia) situated in the Carpathian Basin at the junction of Tisza and Danube. The data was obtained using a multi-disciplinary approach (colour, grain-size, environmental magnetic and geochemical (EDPXRF) properties) on a continuously sampled outcrop section. The section was correlatively dated based on the age model for Serbian loess-palaeosol sequences (LPS) (Basarin et al., 2014) and on the unpublished age model from Urluia (Dobrogea, Romania). Furthermore, numerical age constraints can be derived from the OSL dated Titel core (TLP-1) that shows a nearly congruent grain-size signal (Peric et al., 2018). Selected samples were analysed for volcanic glass shards using optical microscope and microprobe analyses. So far, single-grain, wavelength-dispersive electron microprobe analysis for investigation of glass shard major oxide chemical composition failed.Rapid palaeoclimate changes during MIS 3 are well documented in the high-resolution multi-proxy data from Titel. Colour data as well as rock magnetic and geochemical properties show a corresponding, distinct pattern which is expected to be driven by in-situ weathering and pedogenesis. In between two embryonic soil horizons, the grain-size distribution shows a striking peak in coarse fractions (< 200 μm) that corresponds to the residual proxies and can be assigned as HE4. Volcanic glass shards were found in these samples and, given their
87chronostratigraphic position, very likely linked tothe CI event. Strong, weathering and redeposition-based alteration of the grains inhibited identification by geochemical properties, so far.Our finding of the CI tephra in the southern Carpathian Basin contributes to the ongoing debate about the eruptionmagnitude and volume of volcanic particles ejected during the CI event. In concordance to previous studies (Fitzsimmons et al. 2013, Marti et al., 2016) the occurrence of CI tephra particles at Titel Plateau in the Carpathian Basin supports the need to re-evaluate magnitude of the eruption and ash volume ejected by the eruption. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of the distal ashfall, in particular the northern border, needs to be reassessed in order to evaluate its impact on regional climates, local ecosystems and the dispersal of AMH throughout Europe. A line from the Adriatic Sea (Susak island, Wacha et al. 2011) along the Titel-Plateau, the western beginning (site near Kisijelov) and eastern end of the Danube Iron Gates (Tabula Traiana Cave, Lowe etal., 2012) provides a minimum northern extend of the CI-tephra dispersal in the Carpathian Basin. In order to validate this minimum northern extend, further research tracking CI-tephra occurrences northwards is needed.

Bibliography

Baykal, Y., Hambach, U., Obreht, I., Zeeden, C., Veres, D., Peric, Z., Schulte, P., Lehmkuhl, F., Markovic, S. (2018): The Campanian Ignimbrite tephra layer: How far north does it reach?. INQUA-INTAV International Field Conference and Workshop - Crossing New Frontiers - Tephra Hunt in Transylvania, INTAV, 24.06.-29.06.2018, Moieciu de Sus, Romania

Authors Baykal, Y. and Hambach, U. and Obreht, I. and Zeeden, C. and Veres, D. and Peric, Z. and Schulte, P. and Lehmkuhl, F. and Markovic, S.
Type poster
Title The Campanian Ignimbrite tephra layer: How far north does it reach?
Year 2018
Organization INQUA-INTAV International Field Conference and Workshop - Crossing New Frontiers - Tephra Hunt in Transylvania, INTAV, 24.06.-29.06.2018, Moieciu de Sus, Romania
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