CRC806-Database Data Feed (Atom) Impact of climate change on the transition of Neanderthals to modern humans in Europe 2018-09-13T09:38:40+02:00 A causality between millennial-scale climate cycles and the replacement of Neanderthals by modern humans in Europe has tentatively been suggested. However, that replacement was diachronous and occurred over several such cycles. A poorly constrained continental paleoclimate framework has hindered identification of any inherent causality. Speleothems from the Carpathians reveal that, between 44,000 and 40,000 years ago, a sequence of stadials with severely cold and arid conditions caused successive regional Neanderthal depopulation intervals across Europe and facilitated staggered repopulation by modern humans. Repetitive depopulation–repopulation cycles may have facilitated multiple genetic turnover in Europe between 44,000 and 34,000 years ago. Christian Willmes Holocene climatic and environmental evolution on the southwestern Iberian Peninsula: A high-resolution multi-proxy study from Lake Medina (Cádiz, SW Spain) 2018-09-13T09:29:22+02:00 The climatic and environmental history of the SW Iberian Peninsula is explored to fill in the gap of continental palaeoclimate data by a high-resolution study of Lake Medina sediments from core Co1313. A multi-proxy approach comprising sedimentary facies analysis, elemental geochemistry, mineralogy, palynology and micropaleontology was employed to reconstruct the complex limnological response to climate change and catchment dynamics since the early Holocene. The further definition of abrupt climate change events was supported by a robust age model and rapid sediment accumulation rate at the study site. Proxies indicate arid and warm climate conditions during the Early Holocene, from around 9.5 to 7.8 cal ka BP, with a desiccation event at 8.8 cal ka BP as well as tentative evidence for the regional expression of a cold and abrupt arid climate event centering on ca. 8.2 cal ka BP. The Holocene Climate Optimum, from around 7.8 to 5.5 cal ka BP, is characterized by a humid climate and maximum lake level. Anoxic bottom water conditions are indicated by the preservation of sediment laminae and the occurrences of Sulfur mottles, which were observed for the first time within Holocene sediments of saline lakes. Mid-to Late Holocene times are governed by the 4.2 cal ka BP dry event as well as progressive aridification accompanied by the development of typical Mediterranean low-land vegetation. During recent times, further progressive loss in precipitation as well as fluctuating but overall increasing anthropogenic influence on Lake Medina sediments is observed. Christian Willmes Supplementary data for "Distribution modeling of paleofauna in the Western Mediterranean between the Heinrich events H5 and H4" (master's thesis) 2018-09-12T11:51:28+02:00 This dataset is related to the master's thesis "Distribution modeling of paleofauna in the Western Mediterranean between the Heinrich events H5 and H4". The aim of the work was to generate a model for species distribution in the Western Mediterranean and to determine the best method in this context. By applying three different methods (Bioclim, GLM, MaxEnt) from the dismo package, R was used to predict the distribution of eight cold-adapted prey species in the Late Pleistocene. The Geographic Information System (GIS) QGIS was used to produce the maps which are discussed in the master's thesis and presented there in extracts. The complete dataset is stored within this entry. The supplementary data ( contains the result maps of all species and all time slices as image file, the source code in R, and the raw value results as GeoTIFF. Additional data ( contains all output files generated through the modeling process. References Hijmans, R. J., Elith, J., 2017. Species distribution modeling with R., 2018-9-12. QGIS Development Team, 2018. QGIS Geographic Information System (QGIS) Software, Version 3.2. Op en Source Geospatial Foundation., 2018-9-12 R Core Team, 2018. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. https://www.R-, 2018-9-12. Michael Holthausen Source data used in "Loess distribution and related Quaternary sediments in the Carpathian Basin" by Lehmkuhl et al. 2018 2018-08-13T13:45:10+02:00 This set of data depicts the distribution of loess and related Quaternary sediments in the Carpathian Basin. Using a Geographic Information System (GIS), we compiled a map showing the distribution of loess and related Quaternary sediments in the Carpathian Basin, with unprecedented detail. We vectorized and analyzed existing data (mainly from geological maps) and combined and transferred these into a common (loess) sediment classification system. This cross-border map shows the distribution of eolian sediments in the Carpathian Basin at a scale of 1:1,500,000. Here, we distribute the original data used to compile the map published in Lehmkuhl et al. (2018). We attribute the shapefiles of the used source maps by various authors, in order to facilitate further usage. This data does not depict the complete maps, but focusses on the Quaternary deposits. Please quote the dataset, article and source reference when using this data. In all shapefiles, the column of "Klassi" depicts the classification used in Lehmkuhl et al. 2018. The map used in Lehmkuhl et al. (2018) is accessible under the DOI: 10.5880/SFB806.43. Shapefiles: FinkNagel1979: Staublehm (dust loam) distribution of eastern Austria, 1:100k. Fusan1967: Geological map of Czechoslovakia, 1:200k. Galovic2016: Quaternary deposits in eastern Croatia, based on CGS (2009), 1:300k. Koscal2005: Geomorphological map of Vojvodina, 1:500k. Lindner2017: Loess map of Hungary, adapted from Lindner et al., 2017, based on Balogh et al. (1956). 1:500k. Romania2018: Combination from Florea et al., 1971; Lindner et al., 2017; Ovejanu et al., 1968; Sandulescu et al., 1978 to deal with cross-border problems. Vetters1933: Geological map of Austria, 1:500k. CzechGeologicalSurvey2017: Geological map of Czechia, 1:50k. FederalGeoInstitute1970: Geological map of Yugoslavia, 1:500k. References: Balogh, K., Erdélyi, M., Kretzoi, M., Rónai, A., Schréter, Z., Sümeghy, J., … Urbancksek, J. (1956). Magyarország földtani térképe, 1 : 300.000. Budapest: Magyar Állami Földtani. CGS. (2009). Geological Map of Republic of Croatia. Croatian Geological Survey, Department for Geology, Zagreb. Czech Geological Survey. (2017). Czech Geological Map. Retrieved from Federal Geological Institute. (1970). Geological map of SFR Yugoslavia, 1:500,000. Prepared by Institute for geological and mining exploration and investigation of nuclear and other raw materials, Belgrade. Fink, J., & Nagl, H. (1979). Quartäre Sedimente und Formen (Quaternary sediments and forms), 1:1,000,000. In: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften (ÖAW). Kommission für Raumforschung, Atlas der Republik Österreich 1:1,000,000, Nr. II/6. Wien: Freytag-Berndt & Artaria. Florea, N., Conea, A., & Munteanu, I. (1971). Harta Pedologica a Republicii Socialiste Romania (Soil Map of Romania). Retrieved from; http://esdac. Institutul Geologic si Institutil de Studie si cercetari Pedologice. Retrieved from Fusan, O., Kodym, O., Mateijka, A., & Urbanek, L. (1960). Geological map of Czechoslovakia. Constructed on the basis of the Geological and Agro-geological Maps of Czechoslovakia 1:200,000, published maps of Poland, the German Democratic Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany, Austria, Hungary, Romania, and manuscript maps of the of the U.S.S.R. and Austria, map based on investigation results of 1960, partly completed. Galović, L. (2016). Sedimentological and mineralogical characteristics of the Pleistocene loess/paleosol sections in the Eastern Croatia. Aeolian Research, 20, 7–23. Košćal, M., Menković, L., Mijatović, M., & Knežević, M. (2005). Geomorphological map of the autonomous province of Vojvodina 1:200,000. Provincial secretariat for energy and mineral resources of AP Vojvodina, Geozavod-Gemini, Belgrade. Lehmkuhl, F., Bösken, J., Hošek, J., Sprafke, T., Marković, S., Obreht, I., Hambach, U., Sümegi, P., Thiemann, A., Steffens, S., Lindner, H., Veres, D., Zeeden, C. (2018): Loess distribution and related Quaternary sediments in the Carpathian Basin. – In: Journal of Maps Lindner, H., Lehmkuhl, F., & Zeeden, C. (2017). Spatial loess distribution in the eastern Carpathian Basin: a novel approach based on geoscientific maps and data. Journal of Maps, 13(2), 173–181. Ovejanu, I., Candrea, B., & Crǎciunescu, V. (1968). Harta Geologica a Reppublicii Socialiste Romania (Geological Map of the Socialist Republic of Romania) 1:200.000. Bukarest: Comittul de stat al geologiei Institutul geologic (State Geological Survey). Bukarest. Săndulescu, M., Kräutner, H., Borcoș, M., Năstăseanu, S., Patrulius, D., Ștefănescu, M., … Marinescu, F. (1978). România - Atlas geologic foaia 1 (Geological Atlas of Romania), scale 1:1,000,000. Vetters, H. (1933). Geologische Karte der Republik Österreich und der Nachbargebiete (Die Ostalpen, ihre Ausläufer und Vorlande nebst den angrenzenden Teilen der fränkischen Alb und des böhmischen Massivs). (Geological Map of the Austrian Republic and its neighbouring regions - the eastern alps, its foothills and forelands, the neighbouring parts of Franconian Jura and the Bohemian Massif). Wien: Geologische Bundesanstalt. Janina Bösken Statistical reconstruction of global vegetation for the last glacial maximum 2018-08-13T11:22:35+02:00 We provide an estimate of global vegetation density for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) using a simple statistic model. For today's climate, vegetation is divided into 11 vegetation types plus bare soil, for each of whichempirical relationship between the probability of its occurrence and climate controls is derived. The relationships are then used to reconstruct the glacial vegetation patterns with and without considering CO2 modifications. For the LGM, the climate drivers are estimated from an ensemble-average of global paleo-climate simulations. The reconstruction suggests that vegetation types existing in today's cooler and drier regimes prevailed during the LGM and today's desert areas had more vegetation then. The vegetation patterns of the Amazon and Sahara are examined in detail. In the Amazon, tropical rainforest cover is reduced from 80% in today's climate40% in the LGM climate. The Sahara was partly covered by shrubs and grassland, with bare ground fraction reduced from 80% today to 30% in the LGM. The reconstructed vegetation patterns are compared with available biome data. Patrick Ludwig