CRC806-Database Publications Feed (RSS) http://crc806db.uni-koeln.de/ Publications feed of the CRC806-Database Populations headed south? The Gravettian from a palaeodemographic point of view https://crc806db.uni-koeln.de/dataset/show/populations-headed-south-the-gravettian-from-a-palaeodemographic-point-of-view1632906565/ The Gravettian is known for its technological innovations and artisanal craftwork. At the same time, continued climatic deterioration led to the coldest and driest conditions since the arrival of Homo sapiens sapiens in Europe. This article examines the palaeodemographic development and provides regionally differentiated estimates for both the densities and the absolute numbers of people. A dramatic population decline characterises the later part of the Gravettian, while the following Last Glacial Maximum experienced consolidation and renewed growth. The results suggest that the abandonment of the northern areas was not a result of migration processes, but of local population extinctions, coinciding with a loss of typological and technological complexity. Extensive networks probably assured the maintenance of a viable population. Keywords: Western Europe, Central Europe, Gravettian, palaeodemography, migration/local extinction, cultural complexity, minimum viable population 2021-09-29T09:09:17+02:00 isabell.schmidt@uni-koeln.de Antler Headdresses. Implications from a many-faceted study of an earliest Mesolithic phenomenon Hirschgeweihkappen. Eine vielschichtige Studie eines Phänomens des ältesten Mesolithikums und ihre Auswirkungen https://crc806db.uni-koeln.de/dataset/show/antler-headdresses-implications-from-a-manyfaceted-study-of-an-earliest-mesolithic-pheno1631012867/ So-called ‘antler headdresses’ - red deer (Cervus elaphus) skulls with antlers specifically modified by humans - were identified early as a typical phenomenon of Early Mesolithic sites in the northern European Lowlands. In addition to clearly processed pieces with artificial perforations, longitudinally split antlers and heavy processing of their surfaces, there are also pieces that have only one type of these modifications and others in which human processing is hardly demonstrable. Although comprehensive studies of these ‘headdresses’ have not until now been carried out, the various artefacts are often discussed functionally and interpreted prematurely. In recent years, the discovery of new finds at several sites has again intensified discussion of the typology, function and meaning of these artefacts. To provide a solid base for future discourses, we here present a synthetic study of the available material. A comparative analysis of the morphometric, zooarchaeological and technological features of individual specimens shows that certain characteristics often appear in combination. We propose to reserve the term deer antler ‘headdress’ to a subcategory of specimens which we suggest might indeed have best functioned as headgear. Since several of the deer skull artefacts do not show all the human modifications included in our definition, we adopt a polythetic classification of the term ‘headdress’. Under this definition we identify a total of seven ‘headdresses’ among those frontlets which could be examined, and note further probable specimens among published material unseen by us. In contrast to the conclusions of some other studies, new direct radiometric dates for the antler headdresses from Berlin-Biesdorf and Hohen Viecheln, together with recent chronological data for Star Carr and Bedburg-Königshoven suggest to us that ‘antler headdresses’ represent a phenomenon specific for the earliest Mesolithic of the North European Lowlands. Moreover, the presence of at least two or more of these artefacts at the better investigated sites suggests an important role for them in the rarely discernible social rituals of earliest Mesolithic hunter-gatherers, potentially as an aid to consolidating group/territorial identity. 2021-09-07T11:07:46+02:00 bgehlen.archgraph@gmx.de Rock surface IRSL dating of buried cobbles from an alpine dry-stone structure in Val di Sole, Italy https://crc806db.uni-koeln.de/dataset/show/rock-surface-irsl-dating-of-buried-cobbles-from-an-alpine-drystone-structure-in-val-di-s1626873738/ Here, we investigate the application of rock surface IRSL dating to chronology restrain archaeological structures related to upland pastoralism. We applied the method to cobbles collected from archaeological units in an excavation of a dry-stone structure in Val di Sole in the Italian Alps. At this site, archaeological finds and previous radiocarbon analyses have dated an initial human occupation of the site to the Early Bronze Age (ca. 2200–1600 BC), and a possible second occupation to the Middle Bronze Age (ca. 1600–1350 BC). These archaeological units have later been buried by colluvial sediments. Theoretically, the luminescence-depth profiles from rock surfaces from inside such structures could record the exposure and burial of these archaeological units. We collected buried gneiss cobbles from these archaeological units and measured rock slices and chips from 1 to 4 cm long cores with a low-temperature pIR-IRSL protocol to investigate the signal resetting in these cobbles. Only the IRSL50 signal was deemed appropriate for dating. Measured luminescence-depth profiles demonstrate varying levels of signal resetting before burial. Dating of two paragneiss cobbles from the lower unit yielded corrected burial ages of 1450-700 BC and 19 ka. The older date is clearly not associated with human occupation; the younger date slightly underestimates the Early Bronze Age occupation, which was confirmed by new radiocarbon dating of charcoal (1731-1452 and 2124-1773 cal. BC). The burial of the upper archaeological unit was dated to AD 1000, based on ages derived from the bottom surface of an orthogneiss cobble and the top surface of a paragneiss cobble. This is slightly younger than two new radiocarbon ages (426-596 and 537-654 cal. AD) from charcoal fragments sampled from the same unit. This new chronological data show longer exposure of the upper archaeological unit than was previously known. Furthermore, the paragneiss cobble from the upper unit has been exposed to sufficient heat to reset the IRSL50 and pIR-IRSL290 signals throughout the cobble; an event which can be dated to AD 100–1500 BC. Comparisons between fading-corrected IRSL50 ages and pIR-IRSL290 ages from the heated cobble are in agreement, which suggests that the conventional g-value approach accurately corrects for signal loss during burial. Overall, our research suggests that rock surface IRSL dating can provide complementary chronological data for archaeological settings. 2021-07-21T13:22:17+02:00 lageby@uni-koeln.de Rock surface IRSL dating of buried cobbles from an alpine dry-stone structure in Val di Sole, Italy https://crc806db.uni-koeln.de/dataset/show/rock-surface-irsl-dating-of-buried-cobbles-from-an-alpine-drystone-structure-in-val-di-s1626873680/ Here, we investigate the application of rock surface IRSL dating to chronology restrain archaeological structures related to upland pastoralism. We applied the method to cobbles collected from archaeological units in an excavation of a dry-stone structure in Val di Sole in the Italian Alps. At this site, archaeological finds and previous radiocarbon analyses have dated an initial human occupation of the site to the Early Bronze Age (ca. 2200–1600 BC), and a possible second occupation to the Middle Bronze Age (ca. 1600–1350 BC). These archaeological units have later been buried by colluvial sediments. Theoretically, the luminescence-depth profiles from rock surfaces from inside such structures could record the exposure and burial of these archaeological units. We collected buried gneiss cobbles from these archaeological units and measured rock slices and chips from 1 to 4 cm long cores with a low-temperature pIR-IRSL protocol to investigate the signal resetting in these cobbles. Only the IRSL50 signal was deemed appropriate for dating. Measured luminescence-depth profiles demonstrate varying levels of signal resetting before burial. Dating of two paragneiss cobbles from the lower unit yielded corrected burial ages of 1450-700 BC and 19 ka. The older date is clearly not associated with human occupation; the younger date slightly underestimates the Early Bronze Age occupation, which was confirmed by new radiocarbon dating of charcoal (1731-1452 and 2124-1773 cal. BC). The burial of the upper archaeological unit was dated to AD 1000, based on ages derived from the bottom surface of an orthogneiss cobble and the top surface of a paragneiss cobble. This is slightly younger than two new radiocarbon ages (426-596 and 537-654 cal. AD) from charcoal fragments sampled from the same unit. This new chronological data show longer exposure of the upper archaeological unit than was previously known. Furthermore, the paragneiss cobble from the upper unit has been exposed to sufficient heat to reset the IRSL50 and pIR-IRSL290 signals throughout the cobble; an event which can be dated to AD 100–1500 BC. Comparisons between fading-corrected IRSL50 ages and pIR-IRSL290 ages from the heated cobble are in agreement, which suggests that the conventional g-value approach accurately corrects for signal loss during burial. Overall, our research suggests that rock surface IRSL dating can provide complementary chronological data for archaeological settings. 2021-07-21T13:21:19+02:00 lageby@uni-koeln.de Geoarchaeology and Geochronology of the Upper Palaeolithic site of Temerești Dealu Vinii, Banat, Romania: Site formation processes and human activity of an open-air locality https://crc806db.uni-koeln.de/dataset/show/geoarchaeology-and-geochronology-of-the-upper-palaeolithic-site-of-temereti-dealu-vinii-1626425466/ Abstract This paper reports on the excavation of a Late Pleistocene site at Temerești Dealu Vinii in Western Romania, one of only four sizeable lithic assemblages with similarities to the tradition known from open-air localities in this region. The site consists of a flint scatter covering an area of at least 15 square meters and is comprised of blade, bladelet and flake cores, knapping debris and retouched tools including endscrapers and burins. An interesting feature of Temerești Dealu Vinii is that it is on the same river system as the Upper Palaeolithic sites of Românești and Coșava that are about 10 km upstream. Similarities in the tools and blade technology imply that the sites may have been roughly contemporary. Here, we report on new artifacts, geochemistry, grain size, GIS analysis and geochronology that point to a Holocene reworking of the site. It also highlights the importance of rivers to humans as communication routes in the Upper Palaeolithic in the region. Zusammenfassung Dieser Artikel berichtet von der Ausgrabung der jungpleistozänen Fundstelle Temerești Dealu Vinii im Westen Rumäniens. Die Fundstelle ist eine von insgesamt nur vier umfangreichen Sammlungen prähistorischer Steinwerkzeuge aus Freilandfundstellen in der Region, die sich ähnliche Traditionen hinsichtlich der Steingeräteherstellung teilen. Die Lokalität Temerești weist eine Fundstreuung von Silices auf, die über einen Bereich von mindestens 15 Quadratmetern reicht. Die Sammlung beinhaltet Klingen, Lamellen, Kerne, Schlagabfälle und retuschierte Werkzeuge wie Kratzer und Stichel. Bemerkenswert ist die Lage von Temerești an demselben Flusssystem wie die 10 km flussaufwärts liegenden jungpaläolithischen Fundstellen Românești und Coșava. Gemeinsamkeiten in der Werkzeug- und Klingentechnologie zeigen, dass die Fundstellen zeitgleich besiedelt waren. Unsere Analyse der Artefakte, Geochemie, Korngrößen, sowie GIS-gestützte Auswertung der Geomorphologie und die Geochronologie legen nahe, dass die Sedimente der Fundstelle holozän überprägt wurden. Außerdem wird gezeigt, dass Flüsse wichtige Kommunikationswege während des Jungpaläolithikums in der Region darstellten. 2021-07-16T08:51:05+02:00 janina.boesken@geo.rwth-aachen.de